Language Teaching Methodology

richards and rogersThis is language teaching methodology as modeled by Richards and Rogers (2001). From a language teaching perspective, Richards and Rogers (2001) identified three principles in explaining the concept of methodology. These are:

i. Approach
ii. Design
iii. Procedure

Approach, according to Richards and Rogers, refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serves as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. This means language teaching methodology is influenced by the particular view or theory on the nature of language itself. In order for an approach to lead to a method, they say, it is necessary to develop a design for an instructional system.

In view of this, they defined design as:
The level of method analysis in which we consider (a) what the objectives of the method are; (b) how language is selected and organized within the method, that is, the syllabus model the method incorporates; (c) the types of learning tasks and teaching activities the method advocates; (d) the roles of learners; (e) the roles of teachers; (f) the role of instructional materials. By this definition, design appears to be a framework that systematically connects learning objectives to organization of learning contents and the role of participants in learning situation.

Also, they see procedure as something that encompasses the actual moment-to-moment techniques, practices and behaviours that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method. They further say it is a level that describes how a method realizes its approach and design in classroom behaviour. To this end, it can be said that procedure applies to the real moment of activities in a language class.

Therefore, methodology in this perspective, can be summarised as a systematic way of delivering a language lesson using effective design of activities based on a linguistic theory.

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